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concise church vocabulary English-Czech-definition

26. 6. 2014

(there is the Baltimore Catechism used for the basic church words selection)

(the definitions are taken from the Oxford English Dictionary)

angel    -    anděl       = a messenger, used by the LXX to translate Heb. mal'āk, in full mal'āk-yĕhōwāh ‘messenger of Jehovah’; whence the name and doctrine of angels passed into L. and the modern langs. All other uses of the word are either extensions of this, or taken from the Gr. in the primary sense of ‘messenger.’ The OE. form engel, with g hard, remained to 13th c., but eventually, under influence of OFr. angele, angle (with g soft), and L. angelus, initial a prevailed

apostles    -    apoštolové     =   The twelve witnesses whom Jesus Christ sent forth to preach his Gospel to the world

baptism    -    křest       = The action or ceremony of baptizing; immersion of a person in water, or application of water by pouring or sprinkling, as a religious rite, symbolical of moral or spiritual purification or regeneration, and, as a Christian ordinance, betokening initiation into the Church

commandment    -    přikázání       = The Ten Commandments or precepts of the Mosaic Decalogue.
   Often applied to the table or tables of these required by law to be publicly set up in English parish churches. Hence, the new commandment of Jesus Christ.

confession    -    vyznání hříchů     =  The acknowledging of sin or sinfulness; esp. such acknowledgement made in set form in public worship.

confirmation    -    biřmování       = 5.5 Eccl. A rite administered to baptized persons in various Christian Churches; formerly called ‘bishoping’.
   In the Roman and Greek Churches, always reckoned one of the seven sacraments, and in these and in the Church of England held to convey or be the vehicle of special grace which ‘confirms’ or strengthens the recipient for the practice of the Christian faith.
Down to the 13th c. confirmation was administered immediately or soon after baptism (as still in the Greek Church); since that time, it has been usually deferred in the Western Churches till the ‘years of discretion’. In the Church of England and some other Reformed Churches, candidates are required publicly and personally to renew, ratify, and ‘confirm’ their baptismal vows (see confirm v. 2, quot. 1552), and are then admitted to the full privileges of the Church.

death    -    smrt       = The act or fact of dying; the end of life; the final cessation of the vital functions of an animal or plant.

Eucharist    -    Svátost oltářní       = 1.I.1 Eccl. The sacrament of the Lord's Supper; the Communion. 2.I.2 The consecrated elements, esp. the bread. Phrases, to give, receive, etc. the Eucharist. †3.I.3 The box or closed vessel containing the consecrated bread; the pyx. Obs. II. 4.II.4 Thanksgiving.

fall    -    pád       = A falling from a height.
b.I.1.b fig.; esp. a descent from high estate or from moral elevation.

fasting    -    půst       = fasting penny (dial.): = ‘fastening penny’; see fastening 1 b. Lent.

final waws?    -    sliby věčné       =  1.1 A declaration or assurance made to another person with respect to the future, stating that one will do, or refrain from, some specified act, or that one will give or bestow some specified thing. (Usually in good sense, implying something to the advantage or pleasure of the person concerned.) 2. a.2.a In religious use: One of the Divine assurances of future good or blessing, recorded in the Scriptures as made to particular persons on various occasions, or conceived as given to mankind through Christ; spec. that made to Abraham with respect to his posterity (Gen. xii. 2, etc.).

God    -    Bůh       = 1.I.1 A superhuman person (regarded as masculine: see goddess) who is worshipped as having power over nature and the fortunes of mankind; a deity. (Chiefly of heathen divinities; when applied to the One Supreme Being, this sense becomes more or less modified: see 6 b). 6.II.6 As an appellative. a.II.6.a A Being such as is understood by the proper name God; a sole Divine Creator and Ruler of the Universe; that which God is represented to be according to some particular conception (as the God of philosophy, God of pantheism, God of Judaism), or is manifested to be in some special department of His action (as the God of nature, God of revelation, God of providence); God as contemplated in some special attribute or relation (as the God of love, God of mercy, God of vengeance, etc., the God who made us, etc., my God or our God, etc.).

Gospel    -    Nový Zákon, evangelium       = 1. a.1.a ‘The glad tidings (of the kingdom of God)’ announced to the world by Jesus Christ. Hence, the body of religious doctrine taught by Christ and His apostles; the Christian revelation, religion or dispensation. Often contrasted with the Law, i.e. the Old Testament dispensation. Phrase, to preach, †minister the gospel. b.1.b Identified by Protestants with their own system of belief, as opposed to the perversions of Christianity imputed by them to their adversaries; also applied by Puritans and modern Evangelicals to the doctrine of salvation solely through trust in the merit of Christ's sacrifice.
Grace of God    -    Milost Boží       = Said with reference to God. (See also 11 a.) 6. a.II.6.a Favour, favourable or benignant regard or its manifestation (now only on the part of a superior); favour or goodwill, in contradistinction to right or obligation, as the ground of a concession. Somewhat arch. †of grace: as a matter of favour and not of right. †in grace of: in favour of, for the benefit of. (Cf. sense 14.) c.II.6.c Hence in phrase by the grace of God (tr. L. Dei gratia), appended to the formal statement of the titles of sovereigns, and formerly also of ecclesiastical dignitaries; perh. with mixture of sense 11 a. 11.II.11 In scriptural and theological language. a.II.11.a (Also the grace of God or free grace). The free and unmerited favour of God as manifested in the salvation of sinners and the bestowing of blessings. doctrines of grace: by Calvinists applied esp. to the doctrines of election, predestination, etc. For covenant, dispensation, throne of grace, see the respective words.

heaven    -    nebe       = 1. a.1.a The expanse in which the sun, moon, and stars, are seen, which has the appearance of a vast vault or canopy overarching the earth, on the ‘face’ or surface of which the clouds seem to lie or float; the sky, the firmament. Since 17th c. chiefly poetical in the sing., the plural being the ordinary form in prose: see c. c.1.c The plural heavens was formerly used, esp. in Biblical language (transl. Heb. pl. shāmayim) in the same sense as the sing.; it is now the ordinary prose form for the visible sky. Hence maps of the heavens, planisphere of the heavens, globe of the heavens, etc. 5. a.5.a The celestial abode of immortal beings; the habitation of God and his angels, and of beatified spirits, usually placed in the realms beyond the sky; the state of the blessed hereafter. Opposed to hell.

hell    -    peklo       = 1.1 The abode of the dead; the place of departed spirits; the infernal regions or ‘lower world’ regarded as a place of existence after death; the grave; Hades. a.1.a In Jewish and Christian use.
   In the Bible of 1611, translating Heb. shĕōl (31 times), which is also rendered the grave (31 times), the pit (3 times); in N. T. rendering Gr. ᾅδης Hades (10 times), as well as γέεννα gehenna (12 times); once (2 Pet. ii. 4) ‘cast downe to hel’ represents ταρταρώσας pa. pple., ‘put in Tartarus.’ In the Revised Version, in O. T., hell has been retained in the prophetical books, with Sheol in the margin; elsewhere Sheol is substituted in the text, with grave in the margin (exc. in Deut. xxxii. 22, Ps. lv. 15, lxxxvi. 13, where pit is retained in the text, with Sheol in the margin); in N. T., Hades has everywhere been put for Gr. ᾅδης, and hell reserved for γέεννα. 2.2 The infernal regions regarded as a place of torment; the abode of devils and condemned spirits; the place or state of punishment of the wicked after death.
   In N. T. rendering γέεννα gehenna: see note to 1.

Church    -    Církev       = B.B Signification.
   While it results from what is stated above that kirika, cirice, was originally applied to the building, it is clear that with the conversion of the Teutonic nations, it was assumed as the naturalized equivalent of L. ecclēsia, and used for that word in all its senses. Naturally the first of these would be as the name of the then one great religious organization, the Catholic Church, and especially as represented by its ministers, the clergy or ecclesiastical order. The extension to other senses took place as these were practically recognized.
The history of the OE. cirice, or of the Teutonic kirika, is therefore not the history of the Church, or of its name in Christendom; this begins with the joint history of Gr. ἐκκλησία and its L. adoption ecclēsia; about which all that need be said here is that the Gr. word, meaning etymologically ‘the body of the ἔκκλητοι or select counsellors' was the name given by Solon to the public formal assembly of the Athenian people, and hence to the similar public assemblies of other free Greek cities. By the LXX. it was used to transl. the Heb. qāhāl the ‘congregation’ or assembly of Israel met before the Lord, or conceived in their relation to him. In the N.T. the word has a twofold sense: α. (after the LXX.) the whole congregation of the faithful, the Christian Society, conceived of as one organism, the body of Christ; β. (after classical Gr.), a particular local assembly of Christ's enfranchised met for solemn purposes: in this sense it has a plural. From these arose the later developments: the name of the assembly passed to that of the building set apart for it: the sense of ‘the congregation of the faithful’ sought visible embodiment in outward organization, which necessarily followed the lines of provincial, national, and linguistic distinctions. Thus arose the notion of provincial or national Churches, as parts or branches of the Church universal or Catholic; and, with widening differences, doctrinal or administrative, there came the revolt of some of these from the increasingly centralized organization of the Catholic Church, and the formation of rival churches, each claiming to be the church and rejecting the claim of the others. Thus arose the first great division of the Eastern and Western Church, the later separation of various national ‘reformed’ churches from the unreformed Western Church in the 16th c., the secession of various ‘free’ or ‘voluntary’ churches from the reformed national or ‘established’ churches in later times. Some of these voluntary bodies have refused the name of ‘church’ to any ‘denomination’ or organization of congregations, confining it to the two senses of the Church universal, and an individual local society. The name has even come to be used to denote types or tendencies of thought or expression, within the one communion, as in the modern High Church, Low Church, Broad Church.
I.B.I The building, the Lord's house.
1. a.B.I.1.a A building for public Christian worship. (Distinguished historically from a chapel or oratory, which is a building in some respect private, or not public in the widest sense.)
   Ancient distinctions, retained more or less in the Churches of England and Scotland, are those of cathedral, collegiate, abbey, and parish or parochial, church. (See also metropolitan.) Any place of worship subordinate to the public church of the parish was formerly called chapel (q.v.); but parochial and district chapels are now usually called ‘Church’. In England the name has been only recently and partially extended to places of worship other than those of the national or ‘Established’ Church, as those of Roman Catholics (since c 1830–40) and some Nonconformist Protestants. At present, its application is partly a question of social or individual taste, or of ecclesiastical principle or theory, partly (in popular apprehension) of the size and architecture of the building. Thus, some would limit it to the historical place of worship of the parish, some extend it to all places of worship of that body which they recognize as ‘The Church’, and refuse it to all others; some would require the existence of certain features of ecclesiastical architecture. But, generally speaking, in England the question ‘Is this a church or a chapel?’ would at present be understood to mean ‘Does it belong to the Church of England or to some other religious denomination?’
In Scotland, church is applied to all Presbyterian places of worship, alike of the Established Church, and of the various voluntary bodies which have separated from it. Recently also extended to the chapels of Episcopalians, Roman Catholics, Independents, and others generally.
In U.S. church is, in general use, applied to all places of worship. Episcopalians however sometimes claim it exclusively for their own; and other bodies in some cases use special names for their own buildings. In the British Commonwealth generally, the usage of England and Scotland is combined, with more or less extension as in the U.S.

judgement    -    soud       = 2.2 The trial of moral beings by God (or Christ) as Judge; spec. (in full, the Last Judgement), the final trial of the subjects of God's moral government at the end of the world: = doom n. 6. Often in day of judgement: = doomsday.

mass ceremonies    -    mešní obřady       = 1.A.1 Relating to, consisting of, or characterized by ceremonies; of the nature of a ceremony or rite; ritual; formal.

prayer    -    modlitba       = 1. a.1.a A solemn and humble request to God, or to an object of worship; a supplication, petition, or thanksgiving, usually expressed in words. b.1.b The action or practice of praying to the Divine Being. passive prayer: see quot. 1727–41. c.1.c pl. Petitions to God for his blessing upon some one; hence, earnest good wishes. d.1.d Slang phr. not to have (or have got) a prayer: to have no chance.

promise, vaw    -    slib       = 1.1 A declaration or assurance made to another person with respect to the future, stating that one will do, or refrain from, some specified act, or that one will give or bestow some specified thing. (Usually in good sense, implying something to the advantage or pleasure of the person concerned.)
   breach of promise: see breach n. 3 b. 2. a.2.a In religious use: One of the Divine assurances of future good or blessing, recorded in the Scriptures as made to particular persons on various occasions, or conceived as given to mankind through Christ; spec. that made to Abraham with respect to his posterity (Gen. xii. 2, etc.).
3.3 transf. The thing promised; contextually (with claim) = the fulfilment of a promise.

purgatory    -    očistec       =  1. a.1.a A condition or place of spiritual purging and purification; spec. in Roman Catholic belief, a state ‘in which souls who depart this life in the grace of God suffer for a time, because they still need to be cleansed from venial sins, or have still to pay the temporal punishment due to mortal sins, the guilt and the eternal punishment of which have been remitted’ (Cath. Dict.). b.1.b Saint Patrick's Purgatory:
   A name given to a cavern on an island in Lough Derg, Co. Donegal, where, according to legend, Christ appeared to St. Patrick and showed him a deep pit wherein whoever spent a day and a night could behold the torments of hell and the joys of heaven. 2.2 fig. a.2.a Any condition, place, or thing having the characteristics ascribed to purgatory; a place or state of temporary suffering, expiation, etc.

resurrection    -    zmrtvých vstání       = I. 1.I.1 a.I.1.a The rising again of Christ after His death and burial. b.I.1.b The church-festival by which this event is commemorated.
   In early examples = Easter; with quot. 1838 cf. resurrectio in Du Cange. 2.I.2 The rising again of mankind at the Last Day.
   Frequently termed the general resurrection. For first resurrection see Revelation xx. 4–6.

sacrament    -    svátost       = 1.1 Eccl. Used as the common name for certain solemn ceremonies or religious acts belonging to the institutions of the Christian church.
   The English use before the Reformation adopts the enumeration of seven sacraments (believed to have been first formulated by Peter Lombard in the 12th c.; the same list is recognized in the Eastern Church): viz., Baptism, Confirmation, the Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Order, Matrimony. As late as the 14th c., however, there were still traces in English of the wider application of the word formerly current; while the seven sacraments were viewed as eminently entitled to the name, it could be applied in a more general sense to certain other rites (see quot. c 1315). From the 16th c., Protestants generally have recognized two sacraments only, viz. baptism and the Lord's Supper.
The formal definition of sacrament depends on the answer to the question what is the distinctive feature common to the seven or to the two ‘sacraments’, on account of which they form a separate class from all other observances. Those who accept the number seven, and many of those who admit only two sacraments, say that the sacraments differ from other rites in being channels by which supernatural grace is imparted. By those Protestants who deny that baptism and the Lord's Supper in themselves convey supernatural grace, the specific difference of the ‘sacraments’ from other observances is regarded as consisting in their paramount obligation as having been expressly commanded by Christ Himself, and in the special spiritual benefits obtainable by their faithful use.
By some of the English Puritans and Nonconformists, the word was avoided as being associated with opinions regarded by them as superstitious; the usual term applied by them to baptism and the Lord's Supper was ordinance. 2.2 spec. (with the). The Lord's Supper, Eucharist or Holy Communion. Often called the sacrament of the altar, the Blessed Sacrament, and (esp. formerly) the Holy Sacrament. Phr. to receive, take the sacrament, to communicate. e.2.e the last sacraments, Holy Communion and Extreme Unction administered to the dying; (see also quot. 1920); the sacrament of the sick, in the Roman Catholic Church, Extreme Unction (now officially termed the Anointing of the Sick).
sacrament of marriage    -    svátost manželství      

Saint Spirit, Holy Ghost    -    Duch Svatý       = b.II.6.b the Holy Spirit = Holy Ghost 1. II. 6.II.6 a.II.6.a the Spirit of God (or the Lord), the active essence or essential power of the Deity, conceived as a creative, animating, or inspiring influence. c.II.6.c the Spirit = prec. In Christian charismatic groups: baptism in (of, etc.) the Spirit (and similar phrases), an experience subsequent to conversion and water-baptism, usually evidenced by speaking in tongues (see quot. 19722): in allusion to Mark i. 8 and parallel passages; to receive the Spirit, to experience conversion, evidenced by speaking in tongues; to sing in the Spirit, to sing in a language apparently unknown to the singer (cf. I Cor. xiv. 15); so song in the Spirit; the Spirit moves me: see move v. 11.

Saviour    -    Vykupitel       = 2. a.2.a He who saves mankind from sin and its consequences: as a title of God, and esp. of Christ (in the latter application often Our Saviour). Now always with capital S. 3.3 Saint Saviour. (See saint a. 3.) †a.3.a Used in oaths. Obs. b.3.b [= eccl. L. ecclesia Sancti Salvatoris], the title of the cathedral church of Rome, usually called St. John Lateran. c.3.c The title of the monastic order founded by St. Bridget.

sin    -    hřích       = 1. a.1.a An act which is regarded as a transgression of the divine law and an offence against God; a violation (esp. wilful or deliberate) of some religious or moral principle.
   The expression for my sins (see quot. 1842) is freq. employed in a trivial or jocular way. For the seven deadly sins see deadly a. 5. 2. a.2.a Without article or pl. Violation of divine law; action or conduct characterized by this; a state of transgression against God or His commands.
   original sin: see original a. 1 b.

tentation, temptation    -    pokušení       = [ad. L. tentātiōn-em, late form (after Romanic) of temptātiōn-em, n. of action from temptāre (tentāre) to try, tempt.]
1.1 Obsolete form of temptation, q.v.: sometimes specially expressing experimental trial, as distinct from enticement to evil. 1.1 The action of tempting or fact of being tempted, esp. to evil; enticement, allurement, attraction.
   (Sometimes with more or less approach to senses 2 and 3.)
the temptation (in Christian Theol. and Art), that of Jesus in the wilderness (Matt. iv, etc.). Also used of those of mediæval saints by evil spirits, e.g. ‘The Temptation of St. Anthony’.

to love    -    milovat bližního      

Trinity    -    Trojice Boží    =    1.1 The state of being threefold, threefoldness, threeness. a.1.a in non-theological sense. b.1.b spec. in theological use: applied to the existence of one God in three persons. (In early use esp. in phr. ‘God in trinity’, i.e. in threeness.) 2. a.2.a The three ‘persons’ or modes of being of the Godhead as conceived in orthodox Christian belief; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit as constituting one God; the triune God. (Now always with capital T; often the Holy Trinity, the Blessed Trinity.)
   (There is possibly an instance of an early form trineteð = ONF. trinitet, in Layamon 29533; but both MSS. are defective, one reading merely ðes nome, and the other…nete his name (the rest being burnt).)

virtue    -    ctnost     = I.I As a quality of persons.
1. a.I.1.a The power or operative influence inherent in a supernatural or divine being. Now arch. or Obs. b.I.1.b An embodiment of such power; esp. pl., one of the orders of the celestial hierarchy. †c.I.1.c An act of superhuman or divine power; a ‘mighty work’; a miracle. Obs. 2. a.I.2.a Conformity of life and conduct with the principles of morality; voluntary observance of the recognized moral laws or standards of right conduct; abstention on moral grounds from any form of wrong-doing or vice. b.I.2.b Personified, or regarded as an entity.   c.I.2.c spec. Chastity, sexual purity, esp. on the part of women. of easy virtue: see easy a. 12.
?    -    dostiučinění      
?    -    hřích těžký      
?    -    lítost dokonalá      
?    -    milosrdenství      
?    -    obcování svatých      
?    -    Oběť      
?    -    odpustky      
?    -    pohřeb      
?    -    pokání      
?    -    poslední pomazání      
?    -    přísaha      
?    -    skutky dobré      
?    -    soudný den      
?    -    svátostina      
?    -    svěcení kněžstva      
?    -    uctívání svatých      
?    -    umučení      
?    -    Zjevení      
?    -    zpytování svědomí     

tady bych dal později opačně seřazený seznam slov z česko-anglické části,

až se dohodneme, jak rozsáhlý slovníček bude, a jaké jsou správné překlady do angličtiny



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